Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor

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In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.[1] PPARs play essential roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, development, and metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, and protein) of higher organisms.[2][3]


 

 

><h2><span class="mw-headline">Nomenclature and tissue distribution</span></h2> <p> <table style="background: none transparent scroll repeat 0% 0%; float: right; margin: 0px 0px 0.5em 1em"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table class="infobox" id="proteinInfoBox" style="background: #ffffff; width: 280px"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" colspan="2"> <div style="font-size: medium; line-height: 167%"><b>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha</b></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#dddddd" colspan="2"><b>Identifiers</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 35%" bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Symbol</td> <td style="width: 65%" bgcolor="#eeeeee">PPARA</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Alt. Symbols</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">PPAR</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Entrez</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">5465</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">HUGO</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">9232</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">OMIM</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">170998</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">RefSeq</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">NM_001001928</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">UniProt</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">Q07869</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#dddddd" colspan="2"><b>Other data</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Locus</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">Chr. 22 <i>q12-q13.1</i></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <table class="infobox" id="proteinInfoBox" style="background: #ffffff; width: 280px"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" colspan="2"><img height="227" alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/87/PPARg.png&quot; width="220" border="0" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" colspan="2"> <div style="font-size: medium; line-height: 167%"><b>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma</b></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#dddddd" colspan="2"><b>Identifiers</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 35%" bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Symbol</td> <td style="width: 65%" bgcolor="#eeeeee">PPARG</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Entrez</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">5468</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">HUGO</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">9236</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">OMIM</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">601487</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">RefSeq</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">NM_005037</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">UniProt</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">P37231</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#dddddd" colspan="2"><b>Other data</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Locus</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">Chr. 3 <i>p25</i></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <table class="infobox" id="proteinInfoBox" style="background: #ffffff; width: 280px"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" colspan="2"> <div style="font-size: medium; line-height: 167%"><b>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta</b></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#dddddd" colspan="2"><b>Identifiers</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 35%" bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Symbol</td> <td style="width: 65%" bgcolor="#eeeeee">PPARD</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Entrez</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">5467</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">HUGO</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">9235</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">OMIM</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">600409</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">RefSeq</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">NM_006238</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">UniProt</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">Q03181</td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#dddddd" colspan="2"><b>Other data</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td bgcolor="#e7dcc3">Locus</td> <td bgcolor="#eeeeee">Chr. 6 <i>p21.2</i></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </p> <p>Three types of PPARs have been identified: alpha, gamma, and delta (beta):<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Berger_2002_1-1">[2]</sup></p> <ul> <li><b>&alpha;</b> (alpha) - expressed in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and others</li> <li><b>&beta;/&delta;</b> (beta/delta) - expressed in many tissues but markedly in brain, adipose tissue, and skin</li> <li><b>&gamma;</b> (gamma) - although transcribed by the same gene, this PPAR through alternative splicing is expressed in three forms: <ul> <li>&gamma;1 - expressed in virtually all tissues, including heart, muscle, colon, kidney, pancreas, and spleen</li> <li>&gamma;2 - expressed mainly in adipose tissue (30 amino acids longer)</li> <li>&gamma;3 - expressed in macrophages, large intestine, white adipose tissue.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><span class="mw-headline">History</span></h3> <p>PPARs were originally identified in Xenopus frogs as receptors that induce the proliferation of peroxisomes in cells.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-pmid1312391_3-0">[4]</sup> The first PPAR (PPAR&alpha;) was discovered during the search of a molecular target for a group of agents then referred to as <i>peroxisome proliferators</i>, as they increased peroxisomal numbers in rodent liver tissue, apart from improving insulin sensitivity.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-pmid2129546_4-0">[5]</sup> These agents, pharmacologically related to the fibrates were discovered in the early 1980s. When it turned out that PPARs played a much more versatile role in biology, the agents were in turn termed <i>PPAR ligands</i>. The best-known PPAR ligands are the thiazolidinediones; see below for more details.</p> <p>After PPAR&delta; (delta) was identified in humans in 1992,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-pmid1333051_5-0">[6]</sup> it turned out to be closely-related to the PPAR&beta; (beta) previously described during the same year in other animals (Xenopus). The name PPAR&delta; is generally used in the US, whereas the use of the PPAR&beta; denomination has remained in Europe where this receptor was initially discovered in Xenopus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>



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